Labour in Marx

Labour power – Wikipedia Labor theory of value – Wikipedia Abstract labour and concrete labour – Wikipedia An introduction to Marx’s Labour Theory of Value – Part One Glossary of Terms: La Marx’s theory of alienation – Wikipedia Estranged Labour, Marx, 1844 Karl Marx on alienated labour Marx’s theory of human nature – Wikipedia to be continued Advertisements Continue reading Labour in Marx

Dependent Origination

ArticleChristina FeldmanSpring 1999 This article has been excerpted from a program offered by Christina at the Barre Center for Buddhist Studies on Octo­ber 18,1998. Please note that this represents only a small portion of the material offered in the full program. In the Buddha’s teachings, the sec­ond noble truth is not a theory about what happens to somebody else, but is a process which is going on over and over again in our own lives—through all our days, and countless times every single day. This process in Pali is called paṭicca-samuppāda, sometimes trans­lated as “dependent origination” or “co-dependent origination” or … Continue reading Dependent Origination


Paticca-samuppada Buddhism Written By: The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica See Article HistoryAlternative Titles: conditioned genesis, law of dependent origination, pratitya-samutpada Paticca-samuppada, (Pali: “dependent origination”) Sanskrit pratitya-samutpada, the chain, or law, of dependent origination, or the chain of causation—a fundamental concept of Buddhism describing the causes of suffering (dukkha; Sanskrit duhkha) and the course of events that lead a being through rebirth, old age, and death. Existence is seen as an interrelated flux of phenomenal events, material and psychical, without any real, permanent, independent existence of their own. These events happen in a series, one interrelating group of events producing another. … Continue reading Paticca-samuppada


Namarupa, aka: Nāmarūpa, Nama-rupa; 7 Definition(s) Introduction Introduction In Hinduism Shilpashastra In Buddhism Theravada Mahayana General definition Languages Marathi Relevant definitions Relevant text Comments Namarupa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article. In Hinduism Shilpashastra (iconography) Shilpashastra > glossary [N] [Namarupa in Shilpashastra glossaries] « previous · next » Nāmarūpa (नामरूप):—The universe of our empirical experience is composed … Continue reading Namarupa

Arguments for and against the Existence of God

The polytheistic conceptions of God were criticized and derided by the monotheistic religions. Since the Enlightenment, monotheistic concepts have also come under criticism from atheism and pantheism. Arguments for the Existence of God Philosophers have tried to provide rational proofs of God’s existence that go beyond dogmatic assertion or appeal to ancient scripture. The major proofs, with their corresponding objections, are as follows: 1. Ontological: It is possible to imagine a perfect being. Such a being could not be perfect unless its essence included existence. Therefore a perfect being must exist.Objection: You cannot define or imagine a thing into existence. … Continue reading Arguments for and against the Existence of God

pāramī, pāramitā

pāramī, pāramitā: Perfection of the character. A group of ten qualities developed over many lifetimes by a bodhisatta, which appear as a group in the Pali canon only in the Jataka (“Birth Stories”): generosity (dāna), virtue (sīla), renunciation (απάρνηση) (nekkhamma), discernment (paññā), energy/persistence (viriya), patience/forbearance (khanti), truthfulness (sacca), determination (adhiṭṭhāna), good will (καλή θέληση) (mettā), and equanimity (γαλήνη) (upekkhā). discernment: the ability to judge well. persistence: the continued or prolonged existence of something forbearance: patient self-control; restraint and tolerance Continue reading pāramī, pāramitā


kilesa: Defilement — lobha (passion), dosa (aversion), and moha (delusion) in their various forms, which include such things as greed, malevolence, anger, rancor, hypocrisy, arrogance, envy, miserliness, dishonesty, boastfulness, obstinacy, violence, pride, conceit, intoxication, and complacency. lobha: Greed; passion; unskillful desire. Also rāga. One of three unwholesome roots (mūla) in the mind. dosa: Aversion; hatred; anger. One of three unwholesome roots (mūla) in the mind. moha: Delusion; ignorance (avijjā).. One of three unwholesome roots (mūla) in the mind. Continue reading kilesa

Βuddhism (

See also: Real Buddhism? and Fundamentals of Buddhism Contents The First Noble Truth – Dukkha The Second Noble Truth – Tanha The Third Noble Truth – Nirodha The Fourth Noble Truth – Magga The purpose of studying Buddhism is not to study Buddhism, but to study ourselves. — Shunryu Suzuki What is Buddhism? “To avoid all evil, to cultivate good, and to purify one’s mind—this is the teaching of the Buddhas” (Dhammapada 183). Avoiding evil and cultivating the good means to make our actions and speech non-harmful, and to establish wholesome qualities such as patience and compassion in our hearts. … Continue reading Βuddhism (

Three Basic Facts of Existence I. Impermanence (Anicca)

Home Random sutta Random article Abbreviations Glossary Index Help! The Three Basic Facts of Existence I. Impermanence (Anicca) with a preface by Nyanaponika Thera © 2006 See also The Three Basic Facts of Existence III: Egolessness (Anattaa), The Wheel Publication No. 202/203/204 Contents Preface Motto Words of the Buddha The Fact of Impermanence (Piyadassi Thera) Aniccam: The Buddhist Theory of Impermanence (Bhikkhu Ñanajivako) A Walk in the Woods (Phra Khantipalo) The Buddhist Doctrine of Anicca (Impermanence) (Y. Karunadasa) Anicca (Impermanence) According to Theravada (Bhikkhu Ñanamoli) Preface  If we contemplate even a minute sector of the vast range of life, we … Continue reading Three Basic Facts of Existence I. Impermanence (Anicca)

Eightfold Path

Buddhism Written By: Donald S. Lopez See Article HistoryAlternative Titles: Astangika-marga, Atthangika-magga, Noble Eightfold Path Eightfold Path, Pali Atthangika-magga, Sanskrit Astangika-marga, in Buddhism, an early formulation of the path to enlightenment. The idea of the Eightfold Path appears in what is regarded as the first sermon of the founder of Buddhism, Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, which he delivered after his enlightenment. There he sets forth a middle way, the Eightfold Path, between the extremes of asceticism and sensual indulgence. Like the Sanskrit term Chatvari-arya-satyani, which is usually translated as Four Noble Truths, the term Astangika-marga also implies nobility … Continue reading Eightfold Path